Anxiety-Panic History
1990The film "Joe Versus The Volcano" is released; a comedy regarding hypochondria and phobia. (49)
1990In 1990, Bradwejn et al. reported results of a double-blind study in which they investigated the effects of CCK4 in patients who met the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder. Eleven patients received an IV injection of 50 micrograms of CCK4 and placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) in a randomized order of administration. All subjects experienced a panic attack, whereas no one panicked after the administration of placebo. The CCK4-induced panic attacks were identified by the patients as identical to their naturally occurring attacks.
1990Murphy & Pigott (1990) have presented evidence suggesting that the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines might also be related to serotonergic activity.
1990The economic and social costs of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, were estimated to be almost $50 billion in 1990 - about one third of the total cost of all mental disorders which was estimated at almost $150 billion. (29)
1990the report of the American Psychiatric Association's Task Force on Benzodiazepine Dependence, Toxicity and Abuse ... This document tries to dispel some popular misconceptions about benzodiazepines. ... "There is no evidence to suggest that the therapeutic use of benzodiazepines leads to abuse except in those persons who also abuse other substances." (29)
1990Dr. Robert DuPont, a former director of the [United States] National Institute of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, suggests, "the concept of using the lowest possible dose of a benzodiazepine for the shortest period of time is inconsistent with sound clinical practice. This concept needs to include the important qualification that our goal is to maximize the patient's ability to function well and to enjoy life. Benzodiazepines are among the safest and most effective treatments in all of medicine, including their role in the treatment of panic disorder." (29)
1991The film "What About Bob?" is released; a comedy regarding hypochondria and phobia. (49)
1991During the 1991 Persian Gulf war fewer deaths in Israel were due to SCUD missile damage than to sudden cardiac death among frightened elderly people. (41)
1991Morse, D., Martin, J., and Moshonov, J., 1991. "Psychosomatically Induced Death: Relative to Stress, Hypnosis, Mind Control, and Voodoo: Review and Possible Mechanisms." Stress Medicine 7, 213. (41)
1991In 1991, the National Institute of Mental Health began organizing a "National Depression Screening Day," in the context of its "Mental Illness Awareness Week." (31)
1991NIH/NIMH Consensus Development Conference on Panic Disorder. ... [Conclusions include: PD is a distinct disorder; failing treatment should be reassessed after 6-8 weeks; research in the field is critical; barriers to treatment include awareness, accessibility and affordability (panel estimated that only 25% of PD patients receive anything close to appropriate treatment); need for aggressive educational campaign for clinicians, patients, their families, the media and the general public.] (29)
1991In 1991, the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines (most to least frequent) are Alprazolam (Xanax), Diazepam (Valium), Clorazepate (Tranxene), Lorazepam (Ativan), Oxazepam (Serax), Prazepam (Centrax), Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and Halazepam (Paxipam).
1991Upjohn's Halcion was banned in Britain in 1991 after many reports of amnesia, depression, and violent behaviour... (50)
1991Studies have demonstrated that animals with low exploratory behavior (anxious) have lower density of brain benzodiazepine receptors (Rago et al., 1991).
1991Bradwejn et al. (1991 b) conducted two studies in which they administered two different doses of CCK4 and placebo to panic disorder patients and to healthy volunteers. ... It was concluded that panic disorder patients are far more sensitive to the panicogenic effects of CCK4 as reflected in the different panic rates. ... In healthy subjects, the panic attacks were qualitatively similar to those of PD patients. The researchers found that the agent is safe for routine use in experiments involving human subjects.
1991In a study investigating whether a dose-effect relationship exists between various doses of CCK4 and the indices of its panicogenic effects, Bradwejn et al. (1991 a) administered placebo and one of the three different doses (9, 25 and 50 micrograms) of CCK4 to 36 healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind manner 1 to 3 days apart. None of the subjects experienced a panic attack with placebo, supporting the claim that the induced panic symptoms are not due to a simple apprehension. The panic rates were 11%, 17% and 47% at doses of 9, 25 and 50 micrograms, respectively. Significant dose-related differences were found with respect to the number, intensity and latency (time to onset) of symptoms, these indices increasing with larger doses. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the duration of symptoms.
1991CCK4 has also been compared to carbon dioxide challenge in healthy volunteers (Koszycki et al., 1991). Twenty-six subjects participated in this study, 12 of whom received 25 micrograms of CCK4 IV, and the remaining 14 inhaled 35 % CO2. Seventeen percent of subjects who received CCK4 experienced a panic attack; this panic rate was similar and not statistically different from the 21 % in the CO2 group. There was no significant difference in terms of the number of symptoms; however, the subjects challenged with CCK4 reported more intense symptoms. CCK4 challenge is therefore at least as efficient as CO2 in producing panic-like symptoms.
1991Kerr, D., Campbell, L., Applegate, M., Brodish, A., and Landfield, P. 1991. "Chronic Stress-induced Acceleration of Electrophysiologic and Morphometric Biomarkers of Hippocampal Aging." Journal of Neuroscience 11, 1316. (41)
1992The film "The Fear Inside" is released on cable TV; a drama involving agoraphobia and panic disorder. (49)
1992During the 1992 L. A. earthquake, there was a big jump in heart attacks. (41)
1992Zoloft [sertraline] is introduced in the United States. (29)
1992The demonstration that social support networks are associated with lower glucocorticoid concentrations can be found in Ray, J., and Sapolsky, R. 1992. "Styles of Male Social Behavior and their Endocrine Correlates among High-Ranking Wild Baboons." American Journal of Primatology 28, 231. (41)
1993The film "Fearless" is released; a drama regarding PTSD. (49)
1993NIMH Panic Disorder Education and Prevention Program begun in 1993. (29)
1993Paxil [paroxetine] is introduced in the United States. (29)
1993Introduction of a theorem on the hypersensitivity of respiratory centres of the brain stem (false alarm of suffocation) with the corresponding syndrome of hyposensitivity of respiratory centres. (23)
1993Sensitivity of central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors have been shown to be modified by aversive life events and social variables (Trullas & Skolnick, 1993).
1993Social stressors are particularly immunosuppressive: Herbert, T., and Cohen, S. 1993. "Stress and Immunity in Humans: A Meta-Analytic Review." Psychosomatic Medicine 55, 364. (41)
1994DSM-IV, published in 1994, [listed] 297 disorders. (31)
1994Luvox (fluvoxamine) is introduced in the United States. (29)
1994By 1994, it had been established that a loop of electrical activity from the frontal lobe to the basal ganglia then back to the frontal lobe provided an important anatomic substrate of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Such patients then improved (and blood-flow patterns changed) after the administration of a psychoactive drug (Prozac). (31)
1994[A study at UCLA showed that actors who spent the day doing a depressing negative scene had a decreased immune response, while actors who spent the day doing a uplifting euphoric scene had an increased immune response.] ... Psychoimmunology of trained actors: Futterman, A., Kemeny, M., Shapiro, D., and Fahey, J. 1994. "Immunological and Psychological Changes Associated with Induced Positive and Negative Mood." Psychosomatic Medicine 56, 499. (41)
1994 JulThe Internet (Usenet) newsgroup Alt.Support.Anxiety-Panic (ASAP) is created. ASAP is the first public Internet forum devoted to anxiety disorders. (51)
1995The film "Copycat" is released; a drama involving PTSD/panic disorder. (49)
1995stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors by their inverse agonists, beta-carbolines, produces anxiety and panic-like symptoms in PD patients and healthy subjects (Zacharko et al., 1995).
1995A spate of studies using MRIs in [the 1990s] show that sufferers of PTSD have major and selective atrophy of their hippocampus. The more severe the combat exposure, for example, the worse the atrophy. ... Hippocampal atrophy in PTSD: Bremner, J., Randall, P., Scott, T., Bronen, R., et al. 1995. "MRI-based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Patients with Combat-related PTSD." American Journal of Psychiatry 152, 973. (41)
1995The first controlled study of Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE) therapy in the treatment of a psychological disorder shows VRE to be effective in the treatment of acrophobia. (15)
c. 1995As more and more neurotransmitters were identified - over 40 by the mid-1990s - it became apparent that dopamine and serotonin were only two of many transmitters involved in these complex psychiatric disorders... (31)
1996 JunParoxetine (Paxil) is approved by FDA for use in panic disorder and OCD treatment. (16)
1997"Virtual Vietnam," a VRE software program for treating PTSD, is developed in 1997. (49)
1997The film "As Good As It Gets" is released; a comedy involving Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). (49)
1997 Jan 10ABC News broadcasts a national television report that acknowledges panic disorder as a medical condition. (49)
1997 May 7The first National Anxiety Awareness Day.
1997 May 7The Panic Disorder Institute (PDI) at the Hospital of the Good Sumaritan, Los Angeles, is established under the guidance of Stuart Shipko, MD. (19)
1997The 1st Panic Disorders Institute (PDI) conference.
1997[Stress-induced displacement of aggression] is a real primate specialty as well. A male baboon loses a fight. Frustrated, he spins around and attacks a subordinate male who was minding his own business. An extremely high percentage of primate aggression represents frustration displaced onto innocent bystanders. ... The social life of a male baboon can be pretty stressful - you get beaten up as a victim of displaced aggression; you carefully search for some tuber to eat and clean it off, only to have it stolen by someone of higher rank; and so on. Glucocorticoid levels are elevated among low-ranking baboons, and among the entire group if the dominance hierarchy is unstable or if a new, aggressive male has just joined the troop. But if you are a male baboon with a lot of friends - you play with kids, or you have frequent nonsexual grooming bouts with females, for example - you have lower glucocorticoid concentrations than males of the same general rank who lack these outlets. ... Virgin, C., and Sapolsky, R. 1997. "Styles of Male Social Behavior and their Endocrine Correlates among Low-Ranking Wild Baboons." American Journal of Primatology 42, 25. (41)
1997Major pharmaceutical companies target patients with aggressive marketing of prescription medications, including high-price TV commercials, after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) relaxed rules regarding advertising.
1997Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. spent almost $2 million in the first four months of 1997 in a nationwide ad campaign to inform Americans that the prescription anti-anxiety drug Buspar could be just right for them. (27)
1998"Exploring Your Brain; Fear, Stress and Anxiety" is broadcast on PBS television (produced by WETA, Arlington, Virginia). The program features a panel consisting of Dr. Joseph LeDoux, Dr. Judith Rapoport and Dr. James Ballenger. (51)
1998 Mar 1NPAD News ceases publication after almost ten years due to loss of educational grant funding.
1998 Jun 10The 2nd Panic Disorders Institute (PDI) conference; Los Angeles, California. (51)
1999The film "Analyze This" is released; a comedy involving panic disorder/PTSD. (49)
1999 Jun 9The 3rd Panic Disorders Institute (PDI) conference; Pasadena, California. (51)
Anxiety-Panic History