Anxiety-Panic History
c. 1970In the 1970s, biological psychiatry came roaring back on stage, displacing psychoanalysis as the dominant paradigm and returning psychiatry to the fold of the other medical specialties. (31)
c. 1970 The social and political upheaval of the 1960s and 1970s, with its associated drug abuse, further slowed down social acceptance of even helpful medicine that influenced nervous system diseases. (25)
c. 1970 Dr. Eugene Redmond of Yale demonstrated the effect certain parts of the brain have on the behavior and emotional reaction to fear. He proposed from these studies that panic and fear result from the hyperactivity of [neurons in the locus coeruleus]. (25)
c. 1970The best evidence that [stress-induced] analgesia is a real phenomenon is the neurochemistry that has been discovered to underlie it. The tale begins in the 1970s, with the subject in which every ambitious, cutting-edge neurochemist of the time was interested - the various opiate drugs that were being used recreationally in vast numbers: heroin, morphine, opium. All those compounds have similar chemical structures and are made in certain plants in similar ways. In the early 1970s, three different groups of neurochemists almost simultaneously demonstrated that these opiate drugs bound to specific opiate receptors in the brain. And these receptors tended to to be located in the parts of the brain that process pain perception. (41)
1971[in 1971, Andrew Schally published the next hypothalamic hormone, and Roger Guillemin published 2-months later.] (41)
1972[Roger] Guillemin took the next round in 1972, beating [Andrew] Schally to the next [hypothalamic] hormone by a solid three years. (41)
1972You would expect key psychological variables to be mushy concepts to uncover, but in a series of elegant experiments, a physiologist named Jay Weiss, then at Rockefeller University, demonstrated exactly what is involved. The subject of one experiment is a rat that receives mild electric shocks. Over a series of these, the rat develops a prolonged stress-response: its heart rate and glucocorticoid secretion rate go up, for example. For convenience, we can express the long-term consequences by how likely the rat is to get an ulcer, and in this situation, the probability soars. In the next room, a different rat gets the same series of shocks - identical pattern and intensity; its allostasis is changed to exactly the same extent. But this time, whenever the rat gets a shock, it can run over to a bar of wood and gnaw on it. The rat in this situation is far less likely to get an ulcer. You have given it an outlet for frustration. Other types of outlets work as well - let the stressed rat eat something, drink water, or sprint on a running wheel, and it is less likely to develop an ulcer. ... The rat studies of Weiss also uncovered another variable modulating the stress-response. The rat gets the same pattern of electric shocks, but this time, just before each shock, it hears a warning bell. Fewer ulcers. Unpredictability makes stressors much more stressful. ... For a nontechnical review of Weiss's work, see Weiss, J. 1972. "Psychological Factors in Stress and Disease." Scientific American, 226 (June), 104. (41)
1973NIMH rejoined the NIH. (22)
1975There are no precise data on the number of soldiers who suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder after the Vietnam War. Figures range from 500,000 to 1,500,000 PTSD cases, figures which indicate at least 18 percent and possibly as much as 54 percent of the force suffered psychiatric symptoms. ... While the chances that a soldier would become a psychiatric casualty in Vietnam were about the same as being killed in action, there is no doubt that the chances that he would eventually suffer delayed psychiatric symptoms as a direct consequence of his experiences were much greater than in any of the previous wars. (30)
1975The neuronal chapter of the CCK story began in 1975, when Vanderhaeghen et al reported that the vertebrate brain contained a small peptide reacting with gastrin antibodies. (37)
1975Flushed with excitement, Yale physiologist John Mason, one of the leaders in this approach, even went so far as to proclaim that all stress-responses were psychological stress-responses. The old guard was not amused. Just when the conception of stress was becoming systematized, rigorous, credible, along came this rabble of psychologists muddying up the picture. In a series of published exchanges in which they first praised each other's achievements and ancestors, Selye and Mason attempted to shred each other's work. Mason smugly pointed to the growing literature on psychological initiation and modulation of the stress-response. Selye, facing defeat, insisted that all stress-responses couldn't be psychological and perceptual: if an organism is anesthetized, it still gets a stress-response when a surgical incision is made. ... For a history of the field of stress research, as well as the celebrated debate between Selye and Mason, see Selye, H. 1975. "Confusion and Controversy in the Stress Field." Journal of Human Stress 1, 37. Mason, J. 1975. "A Historical View of the Stress Field." Journal of Human Stress 1, 6. (41)
1976Such "wear and tear" thinking fit in naturally with the era of stressology that Selye introduced, and in his later years Selye theorized that a lifetime of stress depletes an individual of "adaptational" energies, leading to accelerated senescence. Fascinating, especially the notion of adaptational energies, but no one is really sure what that term means. ... For some of Selye's ideas about stress and aging, see Selye, H., and Tuchweber, B. 1976. "Stress in Relation to Aging and Disease." (41)
1977The film "High Anxiety" is released; a comedy involving nervous illness and phobia. (49)
1977Hormonal "signatures" of different stressors: Henry, J. P. 1977. ... James Henry, who has done pioneering work on the ability of social stressors such as subordinancy to cause heart disease in rodents, has found that the sympathetic nervous system is particularly activated in a socially subordinate rodent that is vigilant and trying to cope with a challenge. In contrast, it is the glucocortical system that is relatively more activated in a subordinate rodent that has basically given up on coping. ... James P. Henry, who showed that purely social stress caused atherosclerosis (as well as high blood pressure) in mice. [Jay] Kaplan and colleagues have shown a similar phenomenon in primates, bringing the story much closer home to us humans. (41)
1977the discovery that stress releases opioids. This finding was first reported in 1977 by Roger Guillemin. ... he demonstrated that stress triggers the release of one type of endorphin, beta-endorphin, from the pituitary gland. ... First demonstration of endorphin release during stress: Guillemin, R., Vargo, T., and Rossier, J., 1977. "Beta-endorphin and Adrenocorticotropin are Secreted Concomitantly by Pituitary Gland." Science 197, 1367. (41)
1977[The power of uncertainty as a stressor] has often been described by people awaiting execution at an uncertain date. For example Gary Gilmore, the multiple murderer who was executed in 1977 amid a media circus in Utah, expressed relief bordering on euphoria when all the appeals through various courts and stays of execution were finally exhausted. In such cases, uncertainty can eventually appear even worse than death. (41)
1978"posttraumatic stress disorder" (PTSD), a syndrome initially associated with the trauma of combat. ... In 1978, the committee on reactive disorders recommended to the task force the inclusion of a diagnosis of "post traumatic stress disorder," or PTSD, in the new manual. One student of this campaign concluded, "PTSD is in DSM-III because a core of psychiatrists and [Vietnam] veterans worked consciously and deliberately for years to put it there." (31)
1978The Roche Group, Hoffman-La Roche's parent, sold nearly 2.3 billion pills of diazepam (Valium, stamped with the trademark "V") at its 1978 peak. (49)
1978in the fall of 1974 the American Psychiatric Association decided to convoke its own task force on ECT... How did ECT compare with drug treatment? In its 1978 report, the task force found the two treatments evenly balanced, preferring ECT for severely depressed and suicidal patients (given that antidepressants took about three weeks to act). Though hedged in the language of dubiety and caution, overall the report gave a green light to ECT in the major psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. (31)
1978Place two people in adjoining rooms, and expose both to intermittent noxious, loud noises; the person who has a button and believes that pressing it decreases the likelihood of more noise is less hypertensive. In one variant of this experiment, subjects with the button who did not bother to press it did just as well as those who actually pressed the button. Thus, the exercise of control is not critical; rather, it is the belief that you have it. ... Lundberg, U., and Frankenhaeuser, M. 1978. "Psychophysiological Reactions to Noise as Modified by Personal Control Over Stimulus Intensity." Biological Psychology 6, 51. (41)
1979Redmond and Huang at Yale University first suggested that surges of adrenaline could cause panic attacks. (4)
1979it has been suggested that cholecystokinin might be the neurotransmitter responsible for the satiety signal to the brain. In a consequent search for the miraculous diet pill that CCK could constitute, number of experiments have been conducted. It was not before 1979 that Della-Fera & Baile noticed an unusual behavior such as vocalization and foot stamping in the sheep that received pentagastrin (CCK5) in order to induce satiety. In sheep, such behavior is associated with fear.
Anxiety-Panic History