Anxiety-Panic History
c. 1960the 1960s, the high-water mark of the psychoanalytic movement (31)
c. 1960Agoraphobia was not a well-recognised medical condition in the early Sixties. (50)
c. 1960Beginning in the 1960s, investigators and clinicians began to differentiate patients who had unexpected anxiety attacks from patients with other anxiety disorders. (11)
c. 1960In the 1960s, specific and often dramatic responses of major mental disorders to medications afforded evidence of a biological component to these conditions and triggered the explosive growth of neuroscience, in large part under NIMH's aegis. (22)
c. 1960the 1960s and after, [psychopharmacology] became big business in the United States and Britain, the two countries where it most flourished. (31)
c. 1960Somehow, psychiatry's very real shift to science was associated with an imputed loss of caring. Many other factors as well helped germinate the antipsychiatry movement, not merely changes within psychiatry itself. The whole social climate of the 1960s fostered hostility toward authority, medical and otherwise. ... The movement's basic argument was that psychiatric illness is not medical in nature but social, political, and legal: Society defines what schizophrenia or depression is, and not nature. If psychiatric illness is thus socially constructed, it must be deconstructed in the interest of freeing deviants, free spirits, and exceptional creative people from the stigma of being "pathological." (31)
1960Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) becomes the first antianxiety medication (and first benzodiazepine) to be used in psychiatry.
1960When a group of English scientists gave imipramine to depressed patients in 1960, their blood levels of serotonin dropped way off. This was the beginning of the discovery of the "reuptake mechanism" (31)
1961the Merck Company [brought out] amitryptiline (Elavil) in 1961. (31)
1961In 1961 Roche's researchers in its laboratories in New Jersey published a report stating that Valium had only mild side-effects, including fatigue, dizziness and rash, but these were results based on only seven patients. The results from two other patients were not included because they considered their side-effects too severe to continue on the trial. On average, patients took Valium for only 12-and-a-half weeks. (50)
1962Diazepam (Valium, a benzodiazepine) begins use in psychiatry. (49)
1962In 1962, it was reported that the generic TCA imipramine was effective in treating anxiety states. (29)
1962In 1962 Dr. H. Hobbs was one of the first to suggest that behavioral changes occur prior to insight. In 1963 Dr. J. H. Cautela restated that theory in an articulate manner, asserting that learning the cause behind a particular problem does not necessarily change the problem, but altered behavior which resolves symptoms often allows the patient to connect these changes with the past. (48)
1963Diazepam (Valium) was approved for use in 1963. ... Chemist Leo Sternbach made the discovery that led to Valium while working for Hoffmann-La Roche. Sternbach had created an entirely new class of tranquilizers named benzodiazepines, which were safer and more effective than previous treatments such as barbiturates, opiates, alcohol and herbs. His other breakthroughs would include the sleeping pills Dalmane and Mogadon, Klonopin for epileptic seizures and Arfonad, for limiting bleeding during brain surgery. (49)
c. 1964During the Vietnam War, American soldiers often used marijuana, alcohol, or hard drugs like heroin, despite official regulations to the contrary, to help them endure battle stress and the conditions of military life. (30)
1964The film "The Night of the Iguana" is released; a drama regarding nervous breakdown. (49)
1965The drug propranolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent. It has been used successfully to control fear since 1965, and both anecdotal and research papers have referred to its efficiency in treating a wide range of anxiety symptoms. (48)
1966a doctor named Ferris Pitts found that giving an intravenous infusion of sodium lactate to [anxiety disorder patients] brought on spells and panic just like their original symptoms. (25)
1966Valium was referred to as a "doll"; one of the pills popped by female characters in Jacqueline Susann's 1966 best-selling novel "Valley of the Dolls." (49)
1966By the time the Rolling Stones sang about 'Mother's Little Helper' in 1966, Librium and Valium and the sleeping pill Mogadon had helped Roche to become the biggest pharmaceuticals company in the world. Valium's triumph inspired every large pharmaceutical company to market a benzodiazepine of its own. (50)
1966Harlow, H., Harlow, M., Dodsworth, R., and Arling, G., 1966, "Maternal Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys Deprived of Mothering and Peer Associations in Infancy," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 110, 58. (41)
1966The appraisal concept was adopted by other researchers in the 1960s. One of these was Richard Lazarus, a clinical psychologist who used the concept to understand the way people react to and cope with stressful situations. Studies by Lazarus clearly showed that interpretations of situations strongly influence the emotion experienced. For example, in a classic experiment, subjects watched a gruesome film clip of a circumcision ritual involving teenage members of an aboriginal Australian tribe. For some subjects, the soundtrack verbally played up the gory details, whereas for others the episode was either minimized or intellectualized by the voice overlay. The group that had the first soundtrack, in which the gruesome details were emphasized, had stronger ANS responses and their self-reports suggested that they felt worse afterward than the other two groups, in spite of the fact that the arousing parts of the film were the same for all. Lazarus suggested that the different soundtracks caused the subjects to appraise the films in different ways and this led to different feelings about the situation. Lazarus argued that emotions can be initiated automatically (unconsciously) or consciously, be he emphasized the role of higher thought processes and consciousness, especially in coping with emotional reactions once they exist. (42)
1967NIMH was separated from NIH and raised to Bureau status in the Public Health Service. (later rejoined in 1973) (22)
1968In the 1950s and early 1960s, psychoanalysis consolidated its hold over American psychiatry, and the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual that appeared in 1968, DSM-II, reflected this sway. ... The sturdy Freudian term "hysteria" appeared, replacing "conversion reaction" and "dissociative reaction." What was hysteria? The term referred to symptoms associated with "emotionally charged situations" that are "symbolic of underlying conflicts." ... DSM-II listed 180 different disorders. (31)
1968Bruce McEwen was first reporting that the hippocampus is loaded with receptors for glucocorticoids, and no one really appreciated yet how much the hippocampus was ground zero in the brain for glucocorticoid actions. ... McEwen, B., Weiss, J., and Schwartz. 1968. "Selective Retention of Corticosterone by Limbic Structures in Rat Brain." Nature 220, 911. (41)
c. 1969[14-years into the Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally rivalry, the chemical structure of the first releasing hormone was published.] (41)
1969Diazepam (Valium) became America's most prescribed drug from 1969 to 1982. (49)
1969The first evidence that glucocorticoids could damage the brain came in the late 1960s. Two researchers showed that if guinea pigs are exposed to pharmacological levels of glucocorticoids (that is, higher levels than the body ever normally generates on its own), the brain is damaged. Oddly, damage was mainly limited to the hippocampus. ... The first report of glucocorticoid neurotoxicity: Aus der Muhlen, K., and Ockenfels, H. 1969. "Morphologische veranderungen im diencephalon und telenceaphlin nach storngen des regelkreises adenohypophyse-nebennierenrinde III. Ergebnisse beim meerschweinchen nach verabreichung von cortison und hydrocortison." Z Zellforsch 93, 126. (41)
1969in 1969, a large comparative study of diagnosis in the United States and the United Kingdom made it clear that the two countries were badly out of sync. Commenting on the results, Heinz Lehmann said that it was time for "a renaissance of psychiatric diagnosis, which in many quarters today has deteriorated... into an ill-regulated, superficial, unconvincing, and therefore often useless procedure." (31)
Anxiety-Panic History